Reblogged from reality-breaker  31 notes
The discoveries of science, which render the myths and religions of previous cultures false, may take away their validity as objective realities but it also adds something quite special—a new found appreciation for the imaginative powers of the human mind, the yearning for understanding that has been recurrent throughout the human experience, and an appreciation of the immense and profound progress of the human species as a whole towards the enlightening light of truth.

by Daniel Ryan via reality-breaker

Rogue Geoengineering Project May Have Increased Salmon Numbers via @PopSci
California businessman Russ George made headlines in 2012 when he, in cooperation with a group from a Native Canadian community, dumped more than 100 tons of iron sulfate into the Pacific, some 200 miles off shore. The iron then triggered a bloom of plankton. He apparently didn’t ask anybody’s permission, violated two United Nations conventions, and was widely condemned for taking on such a large project, a type of geoengineering, to alter the environment as he saw fit.
But…
Comparisons with samples from the same region in the years 2000–2011 showed that phytoplankton and microzooplankton abundance indices were the lowest recorded over the time series in the autumn of 2012, while crustacean zooplankton were higher than average, and often higher than previously recorded in the autumn. Possible other contributory factors are discussed but this evidence suggests that the iron-induced bloom could have caused an increase in zooplankton that in turn exerted a heavy grazing pressure on the large phytoplankton and microzooplankton by the autumn of 2012.
Image: Satellite chlorophyll-a image showing regions of elevated chlorophyll on 30 August 2012.
Batten, S., & Gower, J. (2014). Did the iron fertilization near Haida Gwaii in 2012 affect the pelagic lower trophic level ecosystem? Journal of Plankton Research, 36 (4), 925-932 DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbu049

Rogue Geoengineering Project May Have Increased Salmon Numbers via @PopSci

California businessman Russ George made headlines in 2012 when he, in cooperation with a group from a Native Canadian community, dumped more than 100 tons of iron sulfate into the Pacific, some 200 miles off shore. The iron then triggered a bloom of plankton. He apparently didn’t ask anybody’s permission, violated two United Nations conventions, and was widely condemned for taking on such a large project, a type of geoengineering, to alter the environment as he saw fit.

But…

Comparisons with samples from the same region in the years 2000–2011 showed that phytoplankton and microzooplankton abundance indices were the lowest recorded over the time series in the autumn of 2012, while crustacean zooplankton were higher than average, and often higher than previously recorded in the autumn. Possible other contributory factors are discussed but this evidence suggests that the iron-induced bloom could have caused an increase in zooplankton that in turn exerted a heavy grazing pressure on the large phytoplankton and microzooplankton by the autumn of 2012.

Image: Satellite chlorophyll-a image showing regions of elevated chlorophyll on 30 August 2012.

Batten, S., & Gower, J. (2014). Did the iron fertilization near Haida Gwaii in 2012 affect the pelagic lower trophic level ecosystem? Journal of Plankton Research, 36 (4), 925-932 DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbu049

http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jcp/141/3/10.1063/1.4885145 via @Nanowerk
Although intermolecular interactions are ubiquitous in physicochemical phenomena, their dynamics have proven difficult to observe directly, and most experiments rely on indirect measurements. Using broadband two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2DIR), we have measured the influence of hydrogen bonding on the intermolecular vibrational coupling between dimerized N-methylacetamide molecules. In addition to strong intramolecular coupling between N–H and C=O oscillators, cross-peaks in the broadband 2DIR spectrum appearing upon dimerization reveal strong intermolecular coupling that changes the character of the vibrations. In addition, dimerization changes the effects of intramolecular coupling, resulting in Fermi resonances between high and low-frequency modes. These results illustrate how hydrogen bonding influences the interplay of inter- and intramolecular vibrations, giving rise to correlated nuclear motions and significant changes in the vibrational structure of the amide group. These observations have direct impact on modeling and interpreting the IR spectra of proteins. In addition, they illustrate a general approach to direct molecular characterization of intermolecular interactions.
De Marco, L., Thämer, M., Reppert, M., & Tokmakoff, A. (2014). Direct observation of intermolecular interactions mediated by hydrogen bonding The Journal of Chemical Physics, 141 (3) DOI: 10.1063/1.4885145

http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jcp/141/3/10.1063/1.4885145 via @Nanowerk

Although intermolecular interactions are ubiquitous in physicochemical phenomena, their dynamics have proven difficult to observe directly, and most experiments rely on indirect measurements. Using broadband two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2DIR), we have measured the influence of hydrogen bonding on the intermolecular vibrational coupling between dimerized N-methylacetamide molecules. In addition to strong intramolecular coupling between N–H and C=O oscillators, cross-peaks in the broadband 2DIR spectrum appearing upon dimerization reveal strong intermolecular coupling that changes the character of the vibrations. In addition, dimerization changes the effects of intramolecular coupling, resulting in Fermi resonances between high and low-frequency modes. These results illustrate how hydrogen bonding influences the interplay of inter- and intramolecular vibrations, giving rise to correlated nuclear motions and significant changes in the vibrational structure of the amide group. These observations have direct impact on modeling and interpreting the IR spectra of proteins. In addition, they illustrate a general approach to direct molecular characterization of intermolecular interactions.

De Marco, L., Thämer, M., Reppert, M., & Tokmakoff, A. (2014). Direct observation of intermolecular interactions mediated by hydrogen bonding The Journal of Chemical Physics, 141 (3) DOI: 10.1063/1.4885145