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42 of the Best Free Scientific Software for Linux via linuxmint
General Mathematics
FreeMat Rapid engineering and scientific prototyping and data processing
K3DSurf Visualize and manipulate multidimensional surfaces
Octave High-level language, primarily intended for numerical computations
Scilab Numerical computational package 
Computer Algebra systems
Axiom For research and development of mathematical algorithms
Mathomatic Fast and easy-to-use console mode Computer Algebra System
Maxima System for the manipulation of symbolic and numerical expressions
PARI/GP Designed for fast computations in number theory
Sage Integrates an included distribution of specialized mathematics software 
Statistical Analysis
PSPP Free replacement of the proprietary program, SPSS
R Environment for statistical computing and graphics 
Plotting
Gnuplot Command-driven interactive function plotting program
QtiPlot Fully fledged plotting software 
Biology
EMBOSS The European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite
GROMACS Molecular dynamics simulator, with building and analysis tools
VMD Displays, animates, and analyzes large biomolecular systems 
Chemistry
Avogadro Advanced molecular editor
Gabedit Graphical user interface to computational chemistry packages
GAMESS General ab initio quantum chemistry package
MOSCITO Performs molecular dynamics simulations of rigid and/or flexible molecules
MPQC Computes the properties of molecules, ab initio
Open Babel Converts and manipulates chemical data files
PyMOL OpenGL molecular graphics system written in Python 
Physics
CompHEP Automatic computations in High Energy Physics
Gerris Flow Solver Tool for generic numerical simulations of flows
Octopus Real-space, real-time implementation of TDDFT
OpenFOAM Facilitates the numerical solution of partial differential equations
ROOT Solves the data analysis challenges of high-energy physics 
Astronomy
Celestia Real-time space simulation
KStars Desktop planetarium for KDE
Skychart Prepare different sky maps for a particular observation
Stellarium A virtual planetarium 
Electronic & Engineering
Elmer Multiphysical simulation software
Qucs Integrated circuit simulator 
Geographic Information Systems
GRASS Geographic Resources Analysis Support System
Quantum GIS Create, visualise, query and analyse geospatial data
SAGA Analysis of spatial data
uDig Spatial data viewer/editor 
Econometrics
gretl Regression, Econometric and Time-Series Library 
Typesetting
Kile User-friendly LaTeX source editor and TeX shell and KDE
LyX Advanced open source document processor
TeXmacs WYSIWYW scientific word processor

42 of the Best Free Scientific Software for Linux via linuxmint

General Mathematics

FreeMat Rapid engineering and scientific prototyping and data processing

K3DSurf Visualize and manipulate multidimensional surfaces

Octave High-level language, primarily intended for numerical computations

Scilab Numerical computational package

Computer Algebra systems

Axiom For research and development of mathematical algorithms

Mathomatic Fast and easy-to-use console mode Computer Algebra System

Maxima System for the manipulation of symbolic and numerical expressions

PARI/GP Designed for fast computations in number theory

Sage Integrates an included distribution of specialized mathematics software

Statistical Analysis

PSPP Free replacement of the proprietary program, SPSS

R Environment for statistical computing and graphics

Plotting

Gnuplot Command-driven interactive function plotting program

QtiPlot Fully fledged plotting software

Biology

EMBOSS The European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite

GROMACS Molecular dynamics simulator, with building and analysis tools

VMD Displays, animates, and analyzes large biomolecular systems

Chemistry

Avogadro Advanced molecular editor

Gabedit Graphical user interface to computational chemistry packages

GAMESS General ab initio quantum chemistry package

MOSCITO Performs molecular dynamics simulations of rigid and/or flexible molecules

MPQC Computes the properties of molecules, ab initio

Open Babel Converts and manipulates chemical data files

PyMOL OpenGL molecular graphics system written in Python

Physics

CompHEP Automatic computations in High Energy Physics

Gerris Flow Solver Tool for generic numerical simulations of flows

Octopus Real-space, real-time implementation of TDDFT

OpenFOAM Facilitates the numerical solution of partial differential equations

ROOT Solves the data analysis challenges of high-energy physics

Astronomy

Celestia Real-time space simulation

KStars Desktop planetarium for KDE

Skychart Prepare different sky maps for a particular observation

Stellarium A virtual planetarium

Electronic & Engineering

Elmer Multiphysical simulation software

Qucs Integrated circuit simulator

Geographic Information Systems

GRASS Geographic Resources Analysis Support System

Quantum GIS Create, visualise, query and analyse geospatial data

SAGA Analysis of spatial data

uDig Spatial data viewer/editor

Econometrics

gretl Regression, Econometric and Time-Series Library

Typesetting

Kile User-friendly LaTeX source editor and TeX shell and KDE

LyX Advanced open source document processor

TeXmacs WYSIWYW scientific word processor

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    I’ve just recently started using Linux (a bit of a MAC-baby) and these are awesome! -Chronic
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